A recent comprehensive review of studies conducted in the 10 years since the GHI studies ceased provides the information needed to update recommendations for the use of HRT. The updated guidelines are likely to confirm current FDA recommendations suggesting that HRT is safe for short-term use at the lowest possible dose to alleviate severe menopausal symptoms. HRT is not recommended for long-term use or for the prevention of chronic conditions such as osteoporosis in menopausal women.
Treatment of menopausal symptoms with estrogen is known only as estrogen therapy. ET improves menopausal symptoms but increases the risk of uterine cancer. Hodis and his colleagues explored this theory in a study involving hundreds of healthy postmenopausal women. Their findings, published in the New England Journal Hormone Doctor Madison AL of Medicine in 2016, were promising. Women who started hormone therapy within six years of menopause had less hardening of the arteries, known as atherosclerosis, and that means a lower risk of heart attack and stroke. But it didn’t help the women in the study who had already gone through 10 years of menopause.
Hodis believes it could protect against uterine and possibly breast cancer. Participants in the “Advancing Postmenopausal Preventive Therapy” study include women aged 40 to 59 years within six years of menopause. The researchers will follow them for three years and see if the drug reduces atherosclerosis and cognitive decline. Systemic and local treatment options for MHT are available in the United States. The choice a woman receives depends on the menopausal symptoms that the treatment must treat.
However, HT has been linked to several risks, and the debate about its risk-benefit ratio continues. In hormone therapy, synthetic estrogen and progestin are given to replace a woman’s strenuous hormone levels, thus relieving menopausal symptoms. However, HT has been linked to several risks; The debate on the risk-benefit ratio continues. Systemic hormone therapy is primarily taken in a pill, injection or patch. It works by releasing hormones into the bloodstream and reaching the organs and tissues that need them. This type of therapy can help systemic symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood swings.
Menopause is a natural part of aging that usually develops over several years. An artificial state of menopause can occur after a woman has undergone a hysterectomy. This randomized clinical trial made headlines when it suggested that participants who received hormone replacement therapy had an increased risk of breast cancer with no health benefit to their heart. In several studies, the effects of postmenopausal hormones on ovarian cancer risk were inconsistent.
Women who took combined hormone therapy had the same risk of lung cancer as women who took placebo. However, among those diagnosed with lung cancer, women who took estrogen plus progestin were more likely to die from the disease than those who took placebo. The GHI study found an increased annual risk of heart attacks of 7 per 10,000 women who took combination therapy, compared to women who took estrogen alone who did not see significant differences. The subsequent new analysis showed similar results for breast cancer and showed that there was no increased risk in the fifth decade, although the risk increased with age.
SERMS are a class of non-hormonal drugs that selectively mimic or antagonize the action of estrogen on various target organ sites. They have positive effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism and can be offered as an alternative to traditional HT for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. During menopause, women begin to lose their natural resistance to heart disease.
In the first study report, women who took combined hormone therapy had a lower risk of colorectal cancer than women who took placebo. However, colorectal tumors that occurred in the combined hormone therapy group were more advanced in detection than those in the placebo group. In addition, a follow-up study found that the reduced risk of colorectal cancer disappeared after study participants stopped taking combination hormone therapeutics.